Things You Need To Know About Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which your blood sugar levels remain high. If you leave it untreated, it can lead to various complications, affecting the heart, kidneys, nerves, and eyes.

If you have diabetes, you should consult an Internal medicine specialist. You can visit an Internal medicine Doctor in islamabad.

What Happens In Diabetes?

Your body requires insulin to get sugar into the cells. The pancreas secrete insulin. Each cell has a receptor that responds to insulin and takes in sugars. In this way, the sugar gets into the cells, and sugar levels in the blood get lowered.

In diabetes, either the pancreas do not produce enough insulin, or the cells stop responding to insulin. It causes the blood glucose levels to spike. Long-standing high blood sugar levels can cause damage to different organs.

Symptoms Of Diabetes

The signs and symptoms of diabetes include:

  • Feeling thirsty
  • Urinating more than usual
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Feeling tired
  • Dry mouth

Types Of Diabetes

The types of diabetes are type I diabetes, type II diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes.

Type I diabetes

Also known as juvenile diabetes, this type of diabetes usually develops during childhood. Type I diabetes occurs due to an autoimmune response- when the body’s immune cells attack its cells. The insulin-producing cells get damaged, and enough insulin is not produced. It creates an insulin deficiency, and the blood glucose levels increase. People with type I diabetes need to take insulin injections daily.

Type II diabetes

It is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. In this type of diabetes, the body’s cells stop responding to insulin. It causes blood glucose levels to rise. Type II diabetes is treated with medications and, sometimes, insulin, along with other medicines. These medications increase the response of the cells toward insulin. In the initial stages, the pancreas secretes high amounts of insulin in response to high sugar levels. But after a time, the cells get exhausted due to an effort to secrete more and more insulin, and then the insulin secretes stops. This type of diabetes occurs in middle-aged people or the old-aged.


Prediabetes is the stage before type II diabetes. In this type, the blood sugar levels are high but not enough to diagnose diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes

This type of diabetes occurs in pregnant women. The women who get gestational diabetes do not have a history of diabetes. It goes away when the pregnancy ends. Doctors prescribe medications to treat gestational diabetes. 

Management Of Diabetes

For an effective control of blood sugar levels with diabetes and prevent further complications, there are lifestyle changes that you should make.

First of all, avoiding desserts and sugary beverages is a must. You will need to change your diet to keep blood glucose levels in control. 

Take insulin and medications regularly, as advised by your doctor. Insulin and medicines play a vital role in the management of diabetes. 

Try to stay physically active. Consider walking at least 35 minutes, five days a week. Staying physically active helps keep your blood sugar levels under control.

Be vigilant and get regular check-ups from doctors to prevent any complications of diabetes from arising. Check your feet for any cuts or scratches. Seek timely treatment of any infection. With diabetes, the recovery from any infection becomes slow as the immunity is suppressed. If left untreated, an infection can have dangerous consequences. Visit your doctor as recommended to avoid any complications.


Diabetes mellitus can have serious complications if left untreated. Early screening, diagnosis, and treatment can prevent these complications from arising.

If you notice any signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus, you can consult an Internal medicine Doctor in Darul sehat Hospital.

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